2010年12月25日 星期六

五大動詞與五大句型

. 2010年12月25日 星期六

不及物動詞(Vi):→ 1.完全 S+V
↘ 2.不完全 S+V+SC
及物動詞(Vt): → 3.完全 S+V+O
↘ 4.不完全 S+V+O+OC
授與動詞: 5. S+V+O1+O2


動作不影響及他物而不用受詞的動詞稱為不及物動詞

第一型 完全不及物動詞 S+Vi
(沒有補語也能完整表達意思的不及物動詞)
(此句型極簡單,因此往往被人們忽視。其實很多道地的英語都出自於這種簡單句型。)
Birds fly.
Still water runs deep. (大智若愚)
It breaks. (天亮了)
Every minute counts. (分秒必爭)
It depends.
My right shoe hurts.
The fish can’t keep. (魚不新鮮)
He doesn’t mix. (他不合群)



第二型 不完全不及物動詞 S+Vi+SC
(需要主詞補語以補足其意義的不及物動詞)
補語的詞性有兩種:名詞、形容詞
此型V又稱為連綴動詞(Linking Verb):其主要功能是將主詞與主補的敘述部分連接起來,這類動詞沒有太大的敘述能力所以只能靠主詞補語的敘述來補足句子使其獲得完整的意思。

類型: Be 感官 似乎 仍然 變成 …
Be:
1. He is a gigolo. 他是一個小白臉
2. She is a lesbian. 她是個同性戀
3. Seeing is believing. 眼見為憑

感官: (look smell taste sound feel) +形容詞 / + like + 名詞
4. He looks ill. 他看來病厭厭的
5. The rose smells sweet. 玫瑰花聞起來好香
6. It feels like a steel door. 感覺起來像是鋼門
7. The drug tastes bitter. 這藥嚐起來很苦

似乎: (seem appear)
8. He seems naïve. 他似乎很天真
9. The streets appeared deserted.街道似乎很荒涼
10. Don’t make him appear a fool.不要讓他看似一個傻瓜


仍然: (remain keep stay stand lie)
11. He remained silent. 他保持沈默
12. They remained the best friends.他們仍是好朋友
13. Please keep quiet. 請保持安靜
14. He kept calm .他保持冷靜
15. He never stays sober for long.他從來不曾長期保持清醒
16. The house has stood empty for months.房子幾個月來都是空空的
17. These machines have lain idle since the factory closed.
(躺lie lay lain lying)
這些機器自從工廠關閉後就一直閒置


變成: 由一種特性變成為另一種特性
(become go come fall get grow turn make prove run, break, burn)
18. After the war he became poor.戰後,他變窮了
19. He went mad. 他變生氣了
20. Meat soon goes bad in hot weather.肉類在熱的天氣下很快變壞
21. At last his dream had come true. 最後他夢想成真
22. John fell ill. 約翰生病了
23. The baby fell asleep. 小孩睡著了
24. He is growing/getting old. 他逐漸變老
25. It’s getting cold. 天氣逐漸變冷
26. His face turned pale .他的臉色發白
27. She will make a good wife for him. 她會成為他的好太太
28. Our last attempt proved successful. 我們最後的嘗試證實成功了
29. The lions ran wild when people get close to them.當人靠近,獅子變狂野



有受詞接受其動作的動詞稱為及物動詞。
第三型 完全及物動詞 S+Vt+O: (沒有補語也能表達完整的意思的及物動詞)

1.He raped me.他強暴我
2.They need money.他們需要錢
3.They want to go dancing. 他們想要去跳舞
4.He thinks that the book is good. 他認為那本書很棒
5.He enjoys talking to people.他喜歡跟人說話

注意:以下為常考用動名詞作受詞的及物動詞

Mind Avoid Escape Finish Admit Suggest
Consider Miss Delay Excuse Resist Imagine
Risk Appreciate Enjoy Deny Keep Practice
Postpone Tolerate Favor Mention Resume Detest
Can’t help Forgive Quit Recall Celebrate Pardon
Relish
Dislike Advocate Resent Report Fancy Recommend


6.We cannot help laughing. 我們忍不住笑了

7.I don’t mind opening the window though it’s very cold. 雖然天氣很冷,我不介意開窗。
8.The insurance company is considering issuing an insurance policy to cover AIDS patients.
保險公司正在考慮公布一項保障愛滋病患的保險政策



※ 注意:以下為用動名詞和不定詞作受詞意思大致相同的及物動詞
※ 但仍遵循動名詞與不定詞的區分方式
Start Begin Prefer Like Love
Neglect Hate Continue Cease

Ex: It started to rain. (要開始下雨了,原來沒下,後來才下)
It started raining. (下雨了,既然開始下了,不再是不確定)

Ex: The department has ceased to exist. 這間百貨公司不復存在
The factory has ceased making bicycles. 這工廠已經停止製造腳踏車



注意:以下為可用動名詞和不定詞作受詞,意思不相同的及物動詞

Stop
The speaker stopped talking at the second bell. (停止做某事)
演講者在第二聲鈴響時停止談話
The speaker stopped to drink some water. (停下來而去…)
演講者停下來,喝了一點水
(The speaker stopped a second so that he could drink some water.)


TRY
The doctor told the patient to try to eat something. (努力、設法)
醫生告訴病患設法吃些東西
I tried eating the homemade cake. (試試、嘗試)
我嘗試吃那手工蛋糕

Remember + to-v (未發生的事)
Forget + Ving (發生過的事)
+ having pp (句意有曾經才用)
I remember/ forget to beat Mr. Lee. 想起來/忘了 要去揍
I remember/ forget beating Mr. Lee. 想起來/忘了 揍過
I remember/ forget having heard him mention it.
我想起/忘記曾經聽他說過這事情

Regret
I regret to tell you that the job has been filled.
我很抱歉要告訴你,這工作已經有人了
I regret being unable to help you.
我後悔沒能力幫你
He regretted not having come oftener to her. (過去的事用完成式的動名詞)
他後悔早先沒有多找找她


第四型 不完全及物動詞 S+Vt+O+OC:
(除受詞外,還需要受詞補語以補足其意義的及物動詞)

1. 使役動詞用動詞原型作補語
(使役動詞與普通動詞的差別就在於它有強制性,因為這種確定性的語氣,排除了不定詞存在的空間。)

Ex: The teacher asked the little girl to stay behind. (留下來)
老師要求這小女孩留下來
The teacher made the little girl stay behind.
老師叫這小女孩留下來

Ex: I made Mr. Lee quit the chairperson of KMT.
had
bade
let
我叫李先生辭去國民黨主席


2.看、聽、感覺動詞 (see observe watch look at, hear listen to, feel)
(感官動詞這種「聽到、看到」的字眼,只能配合確實發生的事使用,而不能和帶有「不確定、未發生」涵意的不定詞連用)

I heard her cry out in pain. (陳述事實)
我聽見她痛哭
I saw him dancing when I walked in. (正在)
我看見他跳舞當我走進
I saw him killed. (…被…)
我看見他被殺了

3.We elected James (to be) chairman.
我們選詹母士為主席

被動:James was elected chairman by us. 詹母士被我們選為主席

4.We chose him captain.
我們選他做隊長

被動:He was chosen captain by us. 他被我們選做隊長

5.They made him a soldier.
他們要他當兵

6.We call Dr. Sun Yat-set “The Father of the Republic.”
我們稱孫逸仙博士為中華民國之父

7.His parents named him Peter.
他雙親稱他彼得

8.I found it a very interesting book.
我覺得這是一本有趣的書

9.I believe him a good man.
我相信他是一個好人

10.Keep your teeth clean.
保持你的牙齒乾淨

11.Please make yourself at home.
請讓自己感覺自在

第五型 授與動詞 S+Vt+O1+O2:
(此型及物動詞應句意需要,有兩個受詞)

1. Kevin gave me a flag. 凱文給我一根旗子
2. Kevin gave a flag to me. 凱文給我一根旗子

3.Sue bought me a book. 蘇買一本書給我
4.Sue bought a book for me. 蘇買一本書給我

5. He draw me a map.他畫一張地圖給我
He draw a map for me. 他畫一張地圖給我

6.I wrote a letter to my friends in Taipei. 我寫信給我台北的朋友


V+直受+介系詞+間受 (介詞因不同的動詞而有所不同)
[V+物+to+人]
give lend send write bring hand pass deliver show teach tell sell pay owe do promise offer read show sing take
[V+物+for+人]
buy bring book build cook fetch find keep knit order reserve get leave make do
[V+物+of+人]
ask
[V+物+on+人]
play (愚弄、使詭計)

7. He offer lots of help to me.他提供我大量協助

8. She read some famous stories to me.她讀一些有名的故事給我聽

9. I can find the lost watch for mom.我可以幫媽媽找到遺失的手錶

10. My girlfriend made a cake for me. 我女友做蛋糕給我吃

11.I asked a question of him. = I asked him a question.我問他一個問題

12.He played a joke on me.他對我開一個玩笑

13.He played me a mean trick. 他對我使出卑鄙的手段

14.I bear no grudge against him. 我不懷恨他

15.I threw a stone at the dog. 我把石塊扔向那隻狗(丟狗)

16.I threw a bone to the dog. 我扔鉿那隻狗一根骨頭(丟骨頭)

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