2011年12月3日 星期六

寫摘要常用動詞--2

. 2011年12月3日 星期六

◎        point out指出
He pointed out the mistake to me. 他向我指出錯誤

◎        speculate推測;猜測;推斷
We all speculated about the reasons for her resignation. 我們大家都推測過她辭職的原因。 V
It is useless to speculate why he did it. 對他為什麼這麼做妄加猜測毫無用處。 V wh-
We can speculate that the stone circles were used in some sort of pagan ceremony. 我們可以推測,這些石頭排成的圓圈是用於某種異教崇拜儀式的。


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◎        explain解釋;說明
She tried to explain but he wouldn't listen. 她試圖說明一下原因,可他根本不聽。 V
Alex explained that his car had broken down. 亞歷克斯解釋說他的汽車出了毛病。 V that
Well, that doesn't explain why you didn't phone. 噯,那不是你不打電話的理由。 V wh-
scientific findings that help explain the origins of the universe 有助於解釋宇宙形成的科學研究結果 VN
The government now has to explain its decision to the public. 政府現在必須向公眾解釋決策的理由。
It was difficult to explain the problem to beginners. 對初學者解釋這個問題很難。
‘Let me explain!’ he added helpfully. “讓我來說明一下!”他樂於幫忙地補充道。 V
She explained to them what to do in an emergency. 她向他們說明了緊急情況下應採取的行動。
I explained that an ambulance would be coming soon. 我解釋說救護車很快就到。 V that
He explained who each person in the photo was. 他對照片裏的人一一作了介紹。 V wh-
Can you explain how the e-mail system works? 你能說明一下電子郵件系統的工作原理嗎?

◎        observe
看到;注意到;觀察到
Have you observed any changes lately? 最近你注意到什麼變化沒有?
The police observed a man enter the bank. 警察注意到一個男人走進了銀行
She observed that all the chairs were already occupied. 她發現所有的椅子都有人坐了
觀察;注視
The patients were observed over a period of several months. 這些病人被觀察了數月之久。
I felt he was observing everything I did. 我覺得他正在注視着我做的每一件事
遵守(規則、法律等)
Will the rebels observe the ceasefire? 叛亂者會遵守停火協議嗎
慶祝;慶賀
Do they observe Christmas? 他們過不過聖誕節

◎        find
發現,發覺
She woke up and found herself in a hospital bed
We came home and found him asleep on the sofa.
I find (that) it pays to be honest. 我發現為人誠實有裨益
It was found that her blood contained poison. 她的血液中發現有毒
You may find it hard to accept your illness. 你可能覺得難以相信自己患病
She finds it a strain to meet new people. 她和生人見面總感到局促不安

◎        assert
堅持自己的主張;表現堅定
She continued to assert that she was innocent. 她仍然堅稱自己無辜。 V that
She continued to assert her innocence. 她仍然堅稱自己無辜。 VN
‘That is wrong,’ he asserted. “那是錯的。”他斷言道。 V speech
It is commonly asserted that older people prefer to receive care from family members. 人們普遍確認,老年人更願意由家人照顧。

維護自己的權利(或權威)
You should assert your rights 你應該維護你的權利
I was determined to assert my authority from the beginning. 我決心一開始就維護我的權威。

◎        suggest
建議;提議
May I suggest a white wine with this dish, Sir? 先生,吃這道菜,我給您推薦一種白葡萄酒,好嗎? VN
A solution immediately suggested itself to me(= I immediately thought of a solution). 我馬上想到了一個解決辦法。
I suggest (that) we go out to eat. 我提議我們出去吃吧。 V (that)
I suggested going in my car. 我提議坐我的車去。 V -ing
It has been suggested that bright children take their exams early. 有人提議天資好的孩子提前考試。 VN that
It has been suggested that bright children should take their exams early. 有人提議天資好的孩子提前考試。
Can you suggest a good dictionary? 你能推薦一本好詞典嗎?

顯示、表明
The symptoms suggest a minor heart attack. 症狀顯示這是輕微心臟病發作
All the evidence suggests (that) he stole the money. 所有證據都表明是他偷了錢

◎        add
補充說;繼續說
I have nothing to add to my earlier statement. 我對我早先說的話沒有什麼補充的。 VN
‘And don't be late,’ she added. “還有別遲到。”她補充說道。 V speech
He added that they would return a week later. 他接着說,他們一週以後會回來。 V that

◎        admonish
責備;告誡;警告
She was admonished for chewing gum in class. 她在課堂上嚼口香糖,受到了告誡
A warning voice admonished him not to let this happen. 他耳邊響起警鐘,警告他別讓這種事情發生
My mother admonished me against arrogance. 我的母親告誡我不要驕傲
I admonished them for their late arrival我責備他們到得太遲
His friends admonished him against drinking.朋友們力勸他不要酗酒

◎        illustrate
(用示例、圖畫等)說明,解釋
To illustrate my point, let me tell you a little story. 為了說明我的觀點,讓我來給你們講個小故事。 VN
Last year's sales figures are illustrated in Figure 2. 圖 2 顯示了去年的銷售數字
The incident illustrates the need for better security measures. 這次事件說明了加強安全措施的必要
The teacher illustrated his lesson with pictures.這位教師用圖片來講解課文。
He illustrated his point by relating his own experiences.他用自己的經歷說明他的觀點

◎        believe
認為、相信
We believe Mr. Smith to be innocent.我們認為史密斯先生是無辜的。
I believe he has come.我想他已經到了。
People used to believe (that) the earth was flat. 人們一度認為地球是平的。 V (that)
He refused to believe (that) his son was involved in drugs. 他不願相信他的兒子沾染毒品。


◎        argue
爭論;爭吵;爭辯
My brothers are always arguing. 我的兄弟們總是爭論不休。
We're always arguing with each other about money. 我們總是為錢吵嘴。
I don't want to argue with you─just do it! 我不想和你爭辯 請幹吧!
論證;說理;爭辯
They argued for the right to strike. 他們據理力爭罷工權利。 V
She argued the case for bringing back the death penalty. 她為恢復死刑的主張提供論據。 VN
He was too tired to argue the point(= discuss the matter). 他太倦了,不想討論這個問題。
a well-argued article 鑿鑿有據的文章
He argued that they needed more time to finish the project. 他提出理由說明他們需要更多的時間來完成該項目。 V that
It could be argued that laws are made by and for men. 法律由人並為人制定的這一點頗有道理。 VN that

◎        affirm
肯定屬實;申明;斷言
Both sides affirmed their commitment to the ceasefire. 雙方均申明答應停火。 VN
I can affirm that no one will lose their job. 我可以肯定,誰都不會丟掉工作。 V that
She nodded her head in affirmation. 她肯定地點了一下頭

◎        suppose
(根據所知)認為,推斷,料想
Getting a visa isn't as simple as you might suppose. 辦簽證不像你想的那麼容易。 V
Prices will go up,I suppose. 我覺得物價將會上漲。
This combination of qualities is generally supposed to be extremely rare. 一般認為,同時具有這樣一些品質極為罕見。 formal VN to inf.
She had supposed him (to be) very rich. 她原以為他很有錢。 formal VN-ADJ VN to inf.
Why do you suppose he resigned? 你憑什麼推斷他辭職了呢?
There is no reason to suppose she's lying. 認為她在說謊完全沒道理。
I suppose you think that's funny, do you?(= showing anger) 我看你覺得這挺有意思,是不是?
假設
Suppose flights are fully booked on that day─which other day could we go? 假定那天的航班都訂滿了 我們還可以在哪天走呢? V (that)
Let us suppose, for example, that you are married with two children. 比方說,我們假設你成家了,還有兩個孩子。
The theory supposes the existence of life on other planets. 這個理論假定其他行星存在生命。
Suppose him dead─what then? 假如他死了 那怎麼辦?

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