2011年12月5日 星期一

寫摘要常用動詞--4

. 2011年12月5日 星期一

◎        concede
承認(某事屬實、合乎邏輯等)、(尤指勉強地)讓與,讓步;允許、承認(比賽、選舉等失敗)
He reluctantly conceded the point to me. 他不情願地向我承認了這一點。 VNN VN
He reluctantly conceded me the point. 他不情願地向我承認了這一點。
It must be conceded that different judges have different approaches to these cases. 必須承認不同的法官會採用不同的方法來判定這些案件。
The President was obliged to concede power to the army. 總統被迫把權力讓給軍隊。 VN
England conceded a goal immediately after half-time. 英格蘭隊在下半場一開始就被攻入一球。
Women were only conceded full voting rights in the 1950s. 婦女在 20 世紀 50 年代才被容許完全享有選舉權。
After losing this decisive battle, the general was forced to concede. 輸掉了這場決定性的戰役後,那位將軍不得不承認失敗。 V
Injury forced Hicks to concede defeat. 受傷後,希克斯被迫認輸。


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◎        confess
供認,坦白,承認(錯誤或罪行)
She confessed to the murder. 她供認犯了謀殺罪。 V
After hours of questioning, the suspect confessed. 經過數小時的審問後,嫌疑犯終於招供。
He confessed that he had stolen the money. 他承認他偷了那筆錢。 V (that)
We persuaded her to confess her crime. 我們說服她坦白她的罪行。
She was reluctant to confess her ignorance. 她不願承認她的無知。 VN
I must confess to knowing nothing about computers. 我得承認對電腦一竅不通。 V
I confess myself bewildered by their explanation. 我承認他們的解釋使我感到困惑

◎        contend
(尤指在爭論中)聲稱,主張,認為
I would contend that the minister's thinking is flawed on this point. 我倒認為部長的想法在這一點上有漏洞
The police contended that the difficulties they faced were too severe.
contend with對付、處理
I have so many problems to contend with at the moment.
Nurses often have to contend with violent or drunken patients
競爭、爭奪
Three students contended for the prize.三個學生競爭該獎。
Three armed groups were contending for power. 三個武裝集團在爭奪權力

◎        declare
公佈;宣佈;宣告
The government has declared a state of emergency. 政府已宣佈進入緊急狀態。 VN
Germany declared war on France on August 1,1914. 德意志在 1914 年 8 月 1 日向法國宣戰。
The government has declared war on illiteracy. 政府已宣佈要掃除文盲。
The court declared that strike action was illegal. 法庭宣判罷工為非法。 V that
The area has been declared a national park. 這地區已公佈為國家公園。 VN-N
The painting was declared to be a forgery. 這幅畫被判定為贗品。 VN to inf.
The contract was declared void. 這份合同被宣佈無效。 VN-ADJ
I declare this bridge open. 我宣佈大橋正式啟用。
申報
Do you have anything to declare? 你有什麼要申報的嗎?
All income must be declared. 所有收益必須申報

◎        demand
強烈要求
She demanded an immediate explanation. 她強烈要求立即作出解釋。 VN
The UN has demanded that all troops be withdrawn. 聯合國已要求撤出所有部隊。 V that
They are demanding that all troops should be withdrawn. 他們強烈要求所有部隊撤離。
I demand to see the manager. 我堅決要求見經理。 V to inf.
‘Who the hell are you?’ he demanded angrily. “你到底是誰?”他氣勢洶洶地查問道。
需要
This sport demands both speed and strength. 這項運動既需要速度也需要體力





◎        emphasize
強調;重視;着重
His speech emphasized the importance of attracting industry to the town. 他的發言強調了吸引工業到城鎮的重要性。 VN
She emphasized that their plan would mean sacrifices and hard work. 她強調說他們的計劃意味着犧牲和辛勤工作。 V that
He emphasized how little was known about the disease. 他着重指出對這種疾病所知甚少。 V wh-
It should be emphasized that this is only one possible explanation. 應該強調的是,這只是一種可能的解釋

◎        grumble
咕噥;嘟囔;發牢騷
She's always grumbling to me about how badly she's treated at work. 她總是向我抱怨她在工作中如何受虧待。 V
‘I'll just have to do it myself,’ he grumbled. “我只好自己動手了。”他咕噥着說。 V speech
They kept grumbling that they were cold. 他們不停地嘟囔着說冷
發轟隆聲
Thunder grumbled in the distance. 遠處雷聲隆隆
a distant grumble of thunder 遠處隆隆的雷聲
牢騷
My main grumble is about the lack of privacy. 我最大的抱怨是缺乏隱私

◎        insist
堅持
I didn't really want to go but he insisted. 我並不真的想去,但他硬要我去。 V
‘Please come with us.’ ‘Very well then,if you insist.’ “請和我們一起來吧。”“那也好,你一定要我來,我就來。”
She insisted on his/him wearing a suit. 她堅持要他穿西裝。 formal
He insists that she come. 他執意要她來。 V that
He insists that she should come. 他執意要她來
He insisted on his innocence. 他堅持說他是無辜的。 V
He insisted (that) he was innocent. 他堅持說他是無辜的。 V (that)
We insisted on a refund of the full amount. 我們堅決要求全額退款。
They insisted upon being given every detail of the case. 他們堅持要求說明事情的整個來龍去脈。
They insist on playing their music late at night. 他們執意地演奏他們的音樂直到深夜。

◎        maintain
維持;保持,維修;保養,堅持意見,供養;扶養
to maintain law and order/standards/a balance 維持治安;保持水平╱平衡
The two countries have always maintained close relations. 這兩個國家一直保持着密切關係。
She maintained a dignified silence. 她一言不發,面容威嚴。 formal
to maintain prices(= prevent them falling or rising) 維持價格的穩定
The house is large and difficult to maintain. 房子很大,難以養護。
The men maintained (that) they were out of the country when the crime was committed. 這幾個男人堅持說案發時他們在國外。 V (that)
She has always maintained her innocence. 她一直堅持說她是無辜的
Her income was barely enough to maintain one child, let alone three. 她的收入養活一個孩子幾乎都不夠,更不用說三個了


◎        plead
乞求;懇求
She pleaded with him not to go. 她懇求他不要離開。 V
I was forced to plead for my child's life. 我被迫苦苦哀求給我的孩子一條生路。
pleading eyes 乞求的眼神
He pleaded to be allowed to see his mother one more time. 他懇求准許他再看媽媽一眼。 V to inf.
‘Do something!’ she pleaded. “幫幫忙吧!”她央求道
為…辯護;聲援;支持
She appeared on television to plead the cause of political prisoners everywhere. 她出現在電視上為所有政治犯聲援請命。 VN
The United Nations has pleaded for a halt to the bombing. 聯合國已呼籲停止轟炸。
If you plead with someone to do something, you ask them in an intense, emotional way to do it.
When someone charged with a crime pleads guilty or not guilty in a court of law, they officially state that they are guilty or not guilty of the crime.
If you plead the case or cause of someone or something, you speak out in their support or defence.

◎        pledge
保證給予(或做);正式承諾
Japan has pledged $100 million in humanitarian aid. 日本已承諾提供一億元人道主義援助。 VN
The government pledged their support for the plan. 政府保證支持這項計劃。
We all had to pledge allegiance to the flag(= state that we are loyal to our country). 我們都必須對國旗宣誓效忠。
The group has pledged to continue campaigning. 這個組織發誓繼續投入運動。 V to inf.
The group has pledged that they will continue campaigning. 這個組織發誓他們將繼續投入運動。 V (that)
使保證;使發誓
They were all pledged to secrecy. 他們都宣誓保密。 VN
The government has pledged itself to root out corruption. 政府已承諾鏟除腐敗
保證;諾言;誓約
a pledge of help/support/loyalty 幫助/支援/忠誠的許諾
Will the government honour its election pledge not to raise taxes? 政府會履行它的競選諾言,不增加稅收嗎?
Management has given a pledge that there will be no job losses this year. 資方保證今年不會削減工作職位。
When someone makes a pledge, they make a serious promise that they will do something.
When someone pledges to do something, they promise in a serious way to do it. When they pledge something, they promise to give it.
If you pledge a sum of money to an organization or activity, you promise to pay that amount of money to it at a particular time or over a particular period

◎        proclaim
宣佈;宣告;聲明
The president proclaimed a state of emergency. 總統宣佈了緊急狀態。 VN
The charter proclaimed that all states would have their own government. 憲章規定,所有各州皆允建立各自的政府。 V that
He proclaimed himself emperor. 他自封為皇帝。 VN-N
明確顯示;成為標誌;表明
This building, more than any other, proclaims the character of the town. 這座建築比任何其他建築都能代表本城的特色。 VN
His accent proclaimed him a Scot. 他的口音表明他是蘇格蘭人。 VN to inf. VN-N
His accent proclaimed him to be a Scot. 他的口音表明他是蘇格蘭人

◎        remark
說起;談論;評論
The judges remarked on the high standard of entries for the competition. 評委們說明了參賽的高標準。 V
She remarked how tired I was looking. 她說我看上去顯得特別累。
‘It's much colder than yesterday,’ he remarked casually. “今天比昨天冷多了。”他漫不經心地說。 V speech
Critics remarked that the play was not original. 評論家們指出這部戲劇缺乏創意。 V that
The similarities between the two have often been remarked on. 人們經常談到兩者的相似之處。 VN

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