2011年12月6日 星期二

寫摘要常用動詞--5

. 2011年12月6日 星期二

◎        reveal
揭示;顯示;透露
Details of the murder were revealed by the local paper. 地方報紙披露了謀殺的細節。
The report reveals (that) the company made a loss of £20 million last year. 報告顯示,公司去年虧損 2/f000 萬英鎊。 V (that)
It was revealed that important evidence had been suppressed. 據透露,重要的證據被隱瞞了。 VN (that)
Officers could not reveal how he died. 警察們不能透露他的死因
顯出;露出
He laughed, revealing a line of white teeth. 他笑了起來,露出一排潔白的牙齒。
The door opened to reveal a cosy little room. 房門打開,一間溫暖舒適的小屋展現在眼前。
She crouched in the dark, too frightened to reveal herself. 她蜷縮在黑暗中,嚇得不敢露面。


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◎        state
陳述;說明;聲明
He has already stated his intention to run for election. 他已聲明打算參加競選。 VN
The facts are clearly stated in the report. 報道對事實真相作了清楚的說明。
There is no need to state the obvious(= to say something that everyone already knows). 顯而易見的事實就不必陳述了。
State clearly how many tickets you require. 說清楚你需要多少張票。 V wh-
He stated categorically that he knew nothing about the deal. 他明確表示他對協議的事一無所知。 V that
It was stated that standards at the hospital were dropping. 據稱,那家醫院的醫療水準在不斷下降。 VN that
The contract was stated to be invalid. 那份合同宣佈作廢。 VN to inf.

◎        blurt out
脫口而出
She blurted it out before I could stop her. 我還沒來得及制止,她已脫口而出
He blurted out the secret.
You cannot just blurt it out like that.  你說話要婉轉一些。

◎        snap
厲聲說;怒氣冲冲地說
Don't just stand there,’ she snapped. “別光站在那兒。”她生氣地說。 V speech
I was tempted to snap back angrily at him. 我真想沒好氣地頂他幾句。 V
He snapped a reply. 他氣冲冲地回了一句。 VN
(使喀嚓)斷裂
The wind had snapped the tree in two. 風把樹喀嚓一聲颳斷了。 VN
He snapped a twig off a bush. 他啪地從灌木上折下一小枝。
Suddenly, the rope snapped. 突然,繩子啪地繃斷了。 V
The branch she was standing on must have snapped off. 她當時踩的樹枝一定是突然折斷了。

*        常用的批評語氣詞

◎        attack
襲擊;攻擊
A woman was attacked and robbed by a gang of youths. 一位婦女遭到一夥年輕人襲擊和搶劫。
Most dogs will not attack unless provoked. 大多數的狗受到挑釁才會攻擊
to launch/make/mount an attack 發起/進行攻擊;發動進攻
抨擊;非難
a newspaper article attacking the England football manager 報紙上的一篇抨擊英格蘭足球隊經理的文章
She has been attacked for ignoring her own party members. 她因漠視本黨黨員而受到非難。
a scathing attack on the government's policies 對政府政策的猛烈抨擊

◎        belittle
貶低;小看
She felt her husband constantly belittled her achievements. 她覺得她的丈夫時常貶低她的成就。
That was cruel of you to belittle him in front of his friends.
I don't mean to belittle your problem, but it might be best if you just forget about it.

◎        besmirch
詆毀;敗壞…的名聲(=sully, tarnish)
The unhappy client could besmirch the reputation of this company.
Political candidates are known to stoop to low levels in order to besmirch each other's reputations among voters.


◎        blame
責怪;指責
If it doesn’t work, don’t blame me.
Crime is a complex issue – we can’t simply blame poverty and unemployment.
You can’t blame all your problems on your family.
Organizers blame the weather for the low turnout
The hospital has launched an investigation to find out who was to blame for the mistake.

◎        castigate
嚴厲批評;申斥
He castigated himself for being so stupid. 他責怪自己太笨
He was castigated as a racist by his opponents.

◎        censure
嚴厲的批評;斥責;譴責
He was censured by the council for leaking information to the press. 他因泄漏消息給新聞界而受到理事會的譴責
If you censure someone for something that they have done, you tell them that you strongly disapprove of it.
a vote of censure on the government's foreign policy 投票表決譴責政府的外交政策

◎        charge
指責;譴責
She rejected the charge that the story was untrue. 她否認了說她編造事實的指責。
Be careful you don't leave yourself open to charges of political bias. 你要小心別留下把柄,讓人家指責你帶有政治偏見

◎        condemn
譴責,指責
The government issued a statement condemning the killings. 政府發表聲明譴責這些兇殺事件。
The editor of the newspaper was condemned as lacking integrity. 這家報紙的編輯被指責為不夠正直。
宣判;判處(某人某種刑罰)
He was condemned to death for murder and later hanged. 他因兇殺罪被判處死刑後被絞死。 VN
She was condemned to hang for killing her husband. 她因殺害親夫被處以絞刑。

◎        criticize
批評;批判;挑剔;指責
The decision was criticized by environmental groups. 這個決定受到了環保團體的批評。 VN
The government has been criticized for not taking the problem seriously. 政府因沒有認真對待這個問題而受到指責。
All you ever do is criticize! 你就知道批評
Cabinet members were told not to criticize the policy publicly.
Social services were widely criticized for not taking more action to protect children at risk.

◎        decry
(公開)譴責;(強烈)批評
The measures were decried as useless. 這些措施受到指責,說是不起作用
The patients' advocacy group has released a statement which decries crowded and unhealthy conditions in many of the nation's hospitals
The animal rights activists decried the use of animals in the testing of cosmetics
She decried his involvement in the scandal and said she would never let him live it down

◎        denigrate

詆毀;誹謗;貶低
I didn't intend to denigrate her achievements. 我不是想貶低她的成績
You shouldn't denigrate Phil's abilities; he isn't a great pianist, but he is talented.
Even though the critics denigrated the author for her unpopular attitudes on many social issues, her book sold briskly and was widely quoted
When she didn't win the award, she denigrated its importance and belittled the winner
The President praised the contribution of our allies, while his opponent's in congress denigrated their contribution

◎        deprecate

對…表示極不贊成;強烈反對
The critic had many deprecating comments about the movie, so very few people went to go see it.
Her self-deprecating(自謙的) comments were a way of dealing with her insecurities
The comedian decided to self-deprecate(自我貶低) when most of his jokes fell flat
We should all deprecate the return of war.

◎        dismiss
不予考慮;摒棄;對…不屑一提
I think we can safely dismiss their objections. 我認為我們對他們的異議完全可以不予理會。
Vegetarians are no longer dismissed as cranks. 素食主義者不再被當作怪人。
He dismissed the opinion polls as worthless. 他認為民意測驗毫無用處而不予考慮。
The suggestion should not be dismissed out of hand(= without thinking about it). 這建議不應當直接就被摒棄。

去除,消除,摒除(思想、感情等)
■Dismissing her fears, she climbed higher. 她排除了恐懼,爬得更高了。
■He dismissed her from his mind. 他揮去了對她的思念。
解雇;免職;開除
She claims she was unfairly dismissed from her post. 她聲稱自己被無理免職
駁回;不受理
■The case was dismissed. 此案已被駁回。

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