2012年1月11日 星期三

中國獨特概念詞英文表達法

. 2012年1月11日 星期三

1、中國意念詞(Chinesenesses)

八卦 trigram
陰、陽 yin, yang
道 Dao(cf. logo)
江湖(世界) the jianghu World (the traits’ world)
e.g. You can’t control everything in a traits’ world. (人在江湖,身不由己)
道 Daoism(Taoism)
上火 excessive internal heat
儒學 Confucianism
紅學(《紅樓夢》研究) redology
世外桃源 Shangri-la or Arcadia
開放 kaifang (Chinese openness to the outside world)
大鍋飯 getting an equal share regardless of the work done
傷痕文學 scar literature or the literature of the wounded
不搞一刀切 no imposing uniformity on …
合乎國情,順乎民意 to conform with the national conditions and the will of the people
亂攤派,亂收費 imposition of arbitrary quotas and service charge
鐵交椅 iron (lifetime) post’s; guaranteed leading post
脫貧 to shake off poverty; anti-poverty
治則興,亂則衰 Order leads to prosperity and chaos to decline



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2 、中華民族的喜慶節日(Chinese Festivial)

國慶節 National Day
中秋節 Mid-Autumn Festival
春節 Spring Festival
元宵節 Lantern Festival
兒童節 Children’s Day
端午節 Dragon Boat Festival
婦女節 Women’s Day
潑水節 Water-Splashing Day
教師節 Teachers’ Day
五四青年節 Youth Day


3、中國獨特的傳統飲食(Unique Traditional Chinese Foods)

餛飩 wonton
鍋貼 guotie (fried jiaozi)
花卷 steamed twisted rolls
套餐 set meal
盒飯 box lunch; Chinese take-away
米豆腐 rice tofu
魔芋豆腐 konjak tofu
米粉 rice noodles
冰糖葫蘆 a stick of sugar-coated haws (or apples,etc.)
火鍋 chafing dish
八寶飯 eight-treasure rice pudding
粉絲 glass noodles
豆腐腦 jellied bean curd


4 、中國新興事物(Newly Sprouted Things)

中國電信 China Telecom
中國移動 China Mobile
十五計劃 the 10th Five-Year Plan
中國電腦聯網 Chinanet
三峽工程 the Three Gorges Project
希望工程 Project Hope
京九鐵路 Beijing CKowloon Railway
扶貧工程 Anti-Poverty Project
菜籃子工程 Vegetable Basket Project
溫飽工程 Decent-Life Project
安居工程 Economy Housing Project
掃黃 Porn-Purging Campaign
西部大開發 Go-West Campaign


5 、特有的一些漢語詞彙

禪宗 Zen Buddhism
禪 dhyana; dhgaya
混沌 chaos
道 Daosim, the way and its power
四諦 Four Noble Truth
八正道 Eightfold Path
無常 anity
五行說 Theory of Five Elements
無我 anatman
坐禪 metta or transcendental meditation
空 sunyata
虛無 nothingness
雙喜 double happiness(中),a doubled stroke of luck(英)
小品 witty skits
相聲 cross-talk
噱頭;掉包袱 gimmick, stunt
夜貓子 night people; night-owls
本命年 this animal year of sb.
處世之道 philosophy of life
姻緣 yinyuan(prefixed fate of marriage)
還願 redeem a wish (vows)


6 、具有文化特色的現代表述

大陸中國 Mainland China
紅寶書 little red book
紅色中國 socialist China
四化 Four Modernizations
終生職業 job-for-life
鐵飯碗 iron rice bowl
大鍋飯 communal pot
關係戶 closely-related units
外出打工人員 migrant workers
關係網 personal nets, closely-knitted guild
五講(講文明、講禮貌、講衛生、講秩序、講道德):the Five Merits focus on decorum, manners, hygiene, disciplines and morals
四美(心靈美、語言美、行為美、環境美): the Four Virtues are golden heart, refined language, civilized behavior, and green environment


7 、中國古代獨特事物(Unique Ancient Chinese Items)

宣紙 rice paper
衙門 yamen
叩頭 kowtow
孔子Confucius
牌樓 pailou;pai-loo
武術 wushu(Chinese Martial Arts)
功夫 kungfu ;kung fu
中庸 the way of medium (cf. Golden Means)
中和 harmony (zhonghe)
孝順 to show filial obedience
孝子 dutiful son
家長 family head
三綱:君為臣綱,父為子綱,夫為妻綱 three cardinal guides: ruler guides subject, father guides son husband guides wife
五常:仁、義、理、智、信 five constant virtues: benevolence (humanity), righteousness, propriety, wisdom and fidelity
八股文 eight-legged essays
多子多福:The more sons/children, the more blessing/ great happiness
養兒防老:raising sons to support one in one’s old age


8、 近一季度見諸報端的中國現代特色詞彙翻譯

基層監督 grass-roots supervision
基礎稅率 base tariff level
婚介所 matrimonial agency
婚外戀 extramarital love
婚紗攝影 bride photo
黑心棉 shoddy cotton
機器閱卷 machine scoring
即開型獎券 scratch-open ticket/lottery
集中精力把經濟建設搞上去 go all out for economic development
價格聽證會 public price hearings
甲A球隊 Division A Soccer Team
家政服務 household management service
加強輿論監督 ensure the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion
假帳 accounting fraud
叫板 challenge; pick a quarrel
矯情 use lame arguments
漸進式台獨 gradual Taiwan independence
借調 temporarily transfer
擴大中等收入者比重 Raise the proportion of the middle-income group.
擴大內需,刺激消費expand domestic demand and consumption


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