2012年1月25日 星期三

英語寫作常見錯誤與分析

. 2012年1月25日 星期三

一. 不一致(Disagreements)所謂不一致不光指主謂不一致,它還包括了數的不一致 時態不一致及代詞不一 致等.
例1. When one have money ,he can do what he want to .
(人一旦有了錢,他就能想幹什麼就幹什麼.)
剖析:one是單數第三人稱,因而本句的have應改為has ;同理,want應改為wants.本句是典型的主謂不一致.
改為: Once one has money ,he can do what he wants (to do)


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二. 修飾語錯位(Misplaced Modifiers)英語與漢語不 同,同一個修飾語置於句子不同的位置,句子的含義可能引起變化.對於這一點中國學生往往沒有引起足夠的重視,因而造成了不必要的誤解.例1. I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.
      剖析:better位置不當,應置於句末.
  

三. 句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)在口語中,交際雙方可借助手勢語氣上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解.可是書面語就不同了,句子結構不完整會令意思表達不清,這種情況常常發生在主句寫完以後,筆者又想加些補充說明時發生.
例1. There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .
      剖析:本句後半部分”for example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .”不是一個完整的句子,僅為一些不連貫的詞語,不能獨立成句.
改為:There are many ways to know society ,for example ,by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.
  

四. 懸垂修飾語(Dangling Modifiers)所 謂懸垂修飾語是指句首的短語與後面句子的邏輯關係混亂不清.例如:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 這句中”at the age of ten”只點出十歲時,但沒有說明” 誰”十歲時.按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我們把這個懸垂修飾語改明確一點,全句就不那麼費解了.
改為:
When I was ten, my grandfather died.
例1. To do well in college, good grades are essential.
剖析:句中不定式短語 “to do well in college” 的邏輯主語不清楚.
改為:
To do well in college, a student needs good grades.
  

五. 詞性誤用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)“詞性誤用”常表現為:介詞當動詞用;形容詞當副詞用;名詞當動詞用等.
例1. None can negative the importance of money.
剖析:negative 係形容詞,誤作動詞。
改為:
None can deny the importance of money.
  

六. 指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)指代不清主要講的是代詞與被指代的人或物關係不清,或者先後所用的代詞不一致。試看下面這一句:
Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.
(瑪麗和我姐姐很要好,因為她要她做她的伴娘。)
讀完上面這一句話,讀者無法明確地判斷兩位姑娘中誰將結婚,誰將當伴娘。如果我們把易於引起誤解的代詞的所指對象加以明確,意思就一目了然了。這個句子可改為:
Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.
例1. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.
      剖析:句中人稱代詞we 和反身代詞yourself指代不一致。改為:
        We can also know society by serving it ourselves.
  

七. 不間斷句子(Run-on Sentences)什麼叫run-on sentence?請看下面的例句。
例1. There are many ways we get to know the outside world. 
剖析:這個句子包含了兩層完整的意思:“There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world.”。簡單地把它們連在一起就不妥當了。
改為:
There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:
There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside
world
  

八. 措詞毛病(Troubles in Diction)Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何適當地選用詞語的問題,囿于教學時間緊迫,教師平時在這方面花的時間往往極其有限,影響了學生在寫作中沒有養成良好的推敲,斟酌的習慣。他們往往隨心所欲,拿來就用。所以作文中用詞不當的錯誤比比皆是。
例1. The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.
(農業方面化學物質使用的不斷增加也造成了污染。)
剖析:顯然,考生把obstacles“障礙”,“障礙物”誤作substance“物質”了。另外“the increasing use (不斷增加的使用)” 應改為“abusive use (濫用)”。
改為:
The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.
  

九. 累贅(Redundancy)言以簡潔為貴。寫句子沒有一個多餘的詞;寫段落沒有一個無必要的句子。能用單詞的不用片語;能用片語的不用從句或句子。如:
In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.
本句的“the fact that he is lazy”係同謂語從句,我們按照上述“能用片語的不用從句”可以改為:In spite of his laziness, I  like him.
例1. For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.
      剖析:整個句子可以大大簡化。
      改為:
      Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.
  

十. 不連貫(Incoherence)      不連貫是指一個句子前言不對後語,或是結構上不暢通。這也是考生常犯的毛病。
例1. The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.                             
剖析:The fresh water 與逗號後的it 不連貫。It 與things 在數方面不一致。
改為:
Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.
  

十一. 綜合性語言錯誤(Comprehensive Misusage)所謂“綜合性語言錯誤”,是指除了上述十種錯誤以外,還有諸如時態,語態,標點符號,大小寫等方面的錯誤。
例1.Today, Money to everybody is very importance, our’s eat, cloth, live, go etc.

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