2012年7月9日 星期一

否定轉移

. 2012年7月9日 星期一

在學英語的過程中,學生常將這樣的句子 "我認為這不是個好主意." 譯為"I think it isnt a good idea." 而將這句英語譯成漢語時,學生又會譯為 "我不認為這是個好主意." 老師又會說譯錯了,這不符合 "I dont think..." 句型,應譯為 "l dont think its a good idea."
那麼,這錯誤的根源究竟在哪?這就是“英語的否定轉移”在作怪。

否定轉移在非正式語體中特別常見,它是將語義上屬於從屬分句(一般為that clause)的否定詞轉移到母句中去。


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允許否定轉移的母句動詞在語義上可分為以下兩組:

1.看法(OPINION):anticipate,be supposed to,believe,calculate, expect,figure(infml,AmE),imagine, reckon (infml,esp, in AmE),suppose,think:
Eg. I dont believe Ive met you before.
("I believe I havent met you before.")
Eg. She didnt imagine that we would say anything.
("She imagined we wouldnt say anything.")
Eg. He didnt expect to win.
("He expected not to win.")

2.感覺(PERCEPTION) :appear,seem,feel as if,look as if,sound as if (後三個動詞也作infml,esp, in AmE,其中用like來代替as if):
Eg. It doesnt seem that we canget our money back.
"It seems that we cant get our money back."
Eg. The baby doesnt appear to be awake.
("The baby appears not to be awake.")
Eg. It doesnt look like its going to rain.
("It looks like it isnt going to rain.")

否定的轉移是一種含糊的現象。對於否定詞位置不同的兩個句子,意思是否相同,或者在多大程度上相同的問題,各人的直覺可能是不同的。但在以下特殊情況下,原來允許否定轉移的動詞不能將否定轉移:
1.I think是插入句,可看作與其他部分無關:
I wish you were here,then I think I should not feel like this.


2.母句中添加情態動詞cant mustnt wouldnt時:
I cant believe that they are married.
You mustnt think hes stupid.
I wouldnt have imagined that Sandra would be here.

3.由於cannot helping,ought not,need not,not at all等短語的關係而把
I think隔離。
I should have thought sometimes you couldnt help thinking of the past.
I think you ought not to walk at night alone,Mrs. Moore.
I think you need not be impolite to her,as well as to her son.
"I think the angel are not at all in heaven." Mr.Esmond said."

4. 由於not just... but, just not... enough,not much, not quite等以not為核心的副詞短語的影響,也不便把否定拿到動詞的前面去:
I think Im just not smart enough to make any sense out of for you.
"You think shes not much like you? Brerald asked.
But I think that Elizabeth was not quite so certain of it as I.
句中含有no, never, nothing, nobody等的不定詞時:
I should think you never have seen many.
I thought it explained nothing.

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