2012年9月27日 星期四

英文語法-介詞

. 2012年9月27日 星期四

介詞英文叫作Preposition (簡稱pre​​p),它由pre和position組成,pre是前面的意
思,而position是位置的意思。因此以前中文譯作“前置詞”,就是一種放在名詞(或
相當於名詞的詞語)前面的虛詞。

一、常用的介詞

about,above,across,after,against,around,at,
before,behind,below,beneath,beside,besides,between,beyond,by,
down,during,
except,
for,from,
in,inside,into,
like,
near,
of,off,on,out,outside,over,
since,
through,throughout,till,to,toward,
under,until,up,upon,
with,without,
according to,
because of,
by way of,
in addition to,
in front of,
in place of,
in regard to,
in spite of,
instead of,
on account of,
out of.


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哇,這麼一大堆!別怕別怕,大部份的介詞都不難理解,比較令人頭痛的只是下列幾個


at, by, to, in, for, of, on, from, with

其中又以at, by, in, on 為四大“要犯"!學習介詞就是要抓住這幾"要犯",看招
吧,嘿嘿!!

這回就談到這裡吧,噢,對了,下回就讓我們先來一道《Preposition Song》洋餐吧。

談談介詞(Preposition)(二)

二、Preposition Song (括號內是一部份介詞用法提示,是我加的)
(本曲找不到原譜,但你可以自己配上適當的。如下面簡單曲子就是例子:
3212/333-/222-/333-/3212/333-/2232/111-//)

1. In the summer at the seaside (季節用in, 在海邊用at)
On the coast we like it fine (在海岸用on)
but in winter ,yes ,at Christmas (在聖誕用at)
By the fireside we recline (放置) (在爐邊用by)

2. In July we went to Kenya (月份用in)
Stayed in Lamu by the sea, (住在Lamu用in)
We came back to Tanzania
Then across Victoria sea

3. Did you come here in a taxi? (乘出租汽車用in)
Or by bus, or on the train? (乘公共汽車用by, 乘火車用on)
Did you come on foot this evening (步行用on)
Or perhaps by aeroplane? (乘飛機用by)

4. Will you come to tea on Monday? (在星期一用on)
I′ll be home at half past three (時間三點半用at)
Yes, I′ll stay for half an hour (長達半小時用for)
if you buy some beer for me (給我for me)

5. In the morning I drink coffee (早晨用in the morning)
In the afternoon there′s tea (下午用in the afternoon)
In the evening I have cocoa (傍晚用in the evening)
Yes, at night ,it′s good for me. (晚上用at night)

6. Where′s my pencil?In the kitchen (廚房裡in the kitchen)
On the table near the chair (在桌上on the table, 在椅邊near the chair)
Underneath the cup and saucer (在杯和碟的下面underneath...)
Just behind the teapot there (在茶壺後邊behind...)

7. Can you tell me how to get to
Mr. Johnson′s coffee-bar?
Down the street and round the corner (down the street 沿著街道,round...繞過)
Past the church and there you are

8. Where′s the bookshop? Over there,dear (over there 那裡)
First turn left,then go straight on,
Along the road,across the market (沿著路along the road, 穿過市場across...)
It′s in front of you, dear John (在你前面in front of you)

9. There is nothing on the radio (廣播on the radio)
"Songs with orchestra" they said. (with後orchestra為有形物,無形物則用by)
I′m not interested in music (interested in 興趣於)
so I think I′ll go to bed

10. In a moment I′ll be finished (in a moment 片刻裡)
With these prepositions-so
I will say to you in English
till the next time, cheerio (加油呀) (till... 直到)

怎樣?唱完十段歌詞,你就學到許多介詞用法嘍。其中包括四大“要犯”at, by, in,
on。另外再加上許多蟲蟲蟻蟻,有的還得勞駕找一找喔,呵呵。
大家多唱幾遍,下回我們再見時,你就更加胸有成“介”了,哈哈。

談談介詞(Preposition)(三)

這裡提供一個學習介詞at, in, on 的幻燈片文件(PowerPoint),可供初學者使用。其
內容包括有關介詞用法課文、通過歌曲學介詞、通過一個請柬學習介詞、測驗題。其中
所有中文都是我附上的。

為了配合這個幻燈片所介紹的三個介詞:at, in, on,下面我們較深入地介紹它們(附
帶談by) 的用法。

二、介詞at, in, on, by 表示地方、地點、位置:

2.1 at 把地方、地點、位置當作一個“點”:

1.  The begger is sitting at the corner.  那乞丐坐在角落裡。
2.  Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.  Jane在巴士站等你。
3.  at home 在家
4.  Who's standing there at the door?  誰站在門口?
5.  at the top of the page 在一頁的上面
6.  The shop is at the end of the road. 那商店就在路的尾端。
7.  at the entrance 在進口處
8.  at the crossroads 在十字路口
9.  When will you arrive at the office? 你什麼時候會到公司呢?
10.  I'm in France, at Paris. 我住在法國巴黎。 (相對法國來講,巴黎只是一個
“點”)
11.  There is a small hut at the foot of the hill. 山腳下有一座小屋子。
12.  My aunt lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.
我的姑媽住在Durham,Boretz 路門牌55號。 (地址要用at,不能用in)
13.  at the side 在一邊
14.  at reception 在招待會上
15.  I'm at work. 我在工作。
16.  at class/ home/ the library/ the office/ school 在班上/家裡/圖書館/公
司/學校

2.2 in 把地方、地點、位置當作一個範圍或一個封閉的空間:

1. I live in London. 我住在倫敦。 (大城市用in)
2. I live in England, at London. 我住在英國倫敦。 (England大過London喔)
3. I live in a big city, my sister lives at a small town. 我住在大城市,我
姐姐住在一個小市鎮。 (如果把city看做一個圓圈,small town就成一個點。因此就in
a city, at a small town. 呵呵)
4. We have a meeting in Beijing. 我們有北京有一個會議。
5. Mars is in the Solar System. 火星在太陽系裡。
6. in a car 乘汽車(不是on a car 也不是by a car 喔)
7. in a taxi 乘的士(不是on a taxi 或by a taxi )
8. in a helicopter 乘直升機
9. in a boat 乘小船
10. in a lift (elevator) 乘電梯(電梯像個籠子,當然要用in 啦)
11. in the newspaper 在報上
12. in the sky 在空中
13. in the bed 在床上 (也可用 on the bed)
14. in the bedroom/ class/ library/ school 在寢室/課室/圖書館/學校

2.3  on 把地方、地點、位置當作一個平面:

1. The author's name is on the cover of the book. 在書的封面上有作者的名
字。
2. There are no prices on this menu. 在這菜單上沒有價錢。
3. You are standing on my foot. 你踏到我的腳了。
4. There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall. 在那牆上有個“不准吸煙”的牌
子。
5. I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London. 我住在倫敦牛津街
21號八樓。 (7th floor 就是八樓;注意句中的on, at, in 的用法)
6. on a bus 乘巴士 (不是 in a bus 喔)
7. on a train 乘火車(可想像“騎”在火車上,哈哈)
8. on a plane 乘飛機(可想像“騎”在飛機上)
9. on a ship  乘輪船
10. on a bicycle, on a motorbike 騎自行車/摩托車
11. on a horse, on an elephant 騎馬/象
12. on the radio, on television 聽廣播、看電視
13. on the left, on the right 在左邊、在右邊
14. on the way 在路上
15. on the bed 在床上 (也可用 in the bed)
16. on the ceiling 在天花板上
17. on the floor 在地板上

2.4  by 用在表示位置(有在旁、貼近、靠近之意):

1. by the fire 在爐邊
2. by the seaside 在海邊
3. a path by the river 沿河道路
4. by the nearest road  走近路

我想要記憶介詞的用法,就得用一點想像力加以聯想。如:at home, at the door, at
the corner等等,可想像“at家門口的角落裡”。再比如: in Beijing, in a car, in
a taxi, in a boat, in a helicopter, in the sky ... 可想像為“In 北京,乘汽
車,乘的士,再乘小船,乘上直升機在空中飛”。

下回我們將要談的是at, in, on 用來表示時間的方面。再會!

談談介詞(Preposition)(四)

三、at, in, on, by 用來表示時間

3.1  at (在、於)用指明一特定的時間、節日、年齡:

1. at dawn/ at night/ at noon/ at midnight /at daybreak
在黎明/在夜裡/在中午/在午夜/在日出時

2. I go to school at seven in the morning. (at seven) 我早上七點鐘去上學。

3. at half past five (五點過半小時) 在五點半

4. at a quarter to seven (過四分之一小時就到七點) 六點四十五分

5. The train is due at 12.15 pm (at 12.15pm)
  那班火車的到站時間是12點15分。

6. at mid-autumn festival/ at Christmas / at Spring Festival
  在中秋節/ 在聖誕節 /在春節

7. at forty 在四十歲時

3.2  in (在、在…之內、在…期間、在…後、過…後)
指明:天、年、月、季節、週次:

1. in the morning 在早上(不可說at the morining。鬼才知道為什麼不可用at,
大約因為at 沒有“在…期間”的意思吧 )

2. in the afternoon 在下午(在下午這段期間,呵呵,舉一反三喔)

3. She likes to work in the evening. (或in the night) 她喜歡在晚上工作。

4. in the day time 在白天

5. in 2002  (2002可讀作two thousand two) 在2002年

6. He's to quit in M​​ay. (in May)他在五月就辭職了。

7. He went to Tokyo in June 2002. (in June 2002)他於2002年六月去東京。

8. in the second week of July 在七月份的第二週

9. It's too cold in winter to run outside. (in winter) 冬天裡出外跑步是太
冷了。

10. in two months 在兩個月內

11. in those days 在當時

3.3 on (在…時、在(某日)、在某日早/午/晚、當…時候、和…同時、剛一…)指明:
日子、日期、星期加上早午晚

1. on the first 在一號(指某月一號,如二號要說second等。其實意思是指某月的第
幾天)

2. We're having a party on the fifth of June. (或on June the fifth)
我們會在六月五日舉行一個晚會。

3. on July the third 1990 在1990年7月3日

4. My brother is coming on Sunday. ​​(on Sunday) 我的哥哥會在星期天來。

5. on Sunday morning /afternoon 在星期天早上/下午

6. on Friday evening 在星期五晚上

7. on the next morning 隔天早上

8. on the following afternoon 在下一個傍晚

9. on the night before 在前一個晚上

10.on the morning of 5th 在五號的早上
(你可能會說為什麼不是in the morning? 如果你把morning of 抽掉,就可看出原來是
on the 5th嘍。 morning 也可換成evening, afternoon)

11. on the afternoon of his birthday
在他生日那天下午(on the afternoon 不可用in...,同
上)

3.4 by (的時候、到、等到…已經) 用在天、時間:

1. by day 白天(的時候)

2. by 2 o'clock 到兩點鐘

3. by this time 等到現在(已經)…

4. miss by a minute 遲一分鐘

要記住這些規則,可以用上回我們提到的“聯想法”。加油喔!再會。

談談介詞(Preposition)(五)

四、for, since 用於表示時間:

4.1 我們用for 用計量時間(年、月、日、時、分、秒等)

1. He held his breath for five minutes. 他閉息達五分鐘。

2. She's lived there for ten years. 她住在那裡已有十年。

3. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
英國人和愛爾蘭人之間的爭吵已有七個世紀了。

4.2 我們用since 表示明確的日期或​​時間:

1. He's woked here since 1980. 自從1970年他就在此工作。

2. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.
  自兩點半她就坐在等候室了。

五、表示動作的介詞:to ,t​​oward或不用介詞:

5.1 我們用 to 表示向某處移動:

1. They were driving to work together. 他們一同開車去工作。

2. She's going to the destist's office this morning. 今早她去看牙醫。

5.2 toward 表示移向某處:

1. We're moving toward the light. 我們向燈光處移動。

2. This is a big step towards the project's completion.
這是對於工程的完成前進了一大步。

5.3 不需要介詞的詞:home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs,
upstairs ...

1. Grandma went upstairs.

2. Rama went home.

3. She came inside.

六、介詞與名詞、形容詞、動詞的組合:
在英語裡介詞有時和其他的字緊密地組合在一起,可以當作一個詞來看待。這種組
合很多,需要平時多加註意。

6.1 名詞+介詞:

1. approval of 批准
2. awareness of 意識到
3. grasp of 把握住
4. hatred of 憎惡
5. desire for 要求、願望
6. fondness for 愛好(I've a fondness for collecting stamps.)
7. hope for 希望、期待(hope for the best 樂觀)
8. need for 必要(There is no need for hurrying.)
9. reason for 有必須……的理由(have reason for...)
10. respect for 尊敬 (have respect for...)
11. belief in 信任於
12. interest in 對……有興趣
13. success in 成功、成就

6.2 形容詞 + 介詞:

1. afraid of (He is not afraid of anything.)
2. aware of 覺得
3. capable of 能(The tank is capable of holding 8 kg. of water.)
4. fond of 喜愛 (He's fond of fishing.)
5. jealous of 嫉妒於
6. made of 用……製成的
7. proud of 對……感覺光榮(I'm proud of his acquaintance. 認識他是我的光
榮。 )
8. sure of 確信(You may be sure of his honesty.)
9. tired of 厭倦的
10. careless about 不關心、不重視
11. worried about 自找煩惱
12. familiar with 熟悉於、精通於
13. interested in 興趣於
14. sorry for 懊悔、覺得過意不去(You will be sorry for this some day.)

6.3 動詞+ 介詞:(這類組合特別多。要特別注意同一個動詞配上不同的介詞,意思
就不同了)

1. care about 關心(He doesn't care about other people. 他不關心別人。)

2. care for 喜歡(Would you care for a cup of coffee? 你喜歡來杯咖啡嗎?)

3. take care of 照顧(Take care of yourseft. 照顧自己喔。)

4. dream about 夢到(I dreamt about you last night. 昨晚我夢到你。)

5. dream of 夢想(I often dream of being rich. 我時常夢想發達了。)

6. hear about 聽到關於……的詳情(Have you hear about Jane? )

7. hear of 聽到……的事/話(Have you heard of a place called 'Mulu'?)

8. hear from 得到……的消息(Have you heard from Ann recently?)

9. look at 注視、考察(Why you look at me like that?)

10. look for 找、指望(Can you help me look for my keys?)

11. look after 照應、看守(She is ill, she needs someone to look after
her.)

12. think about 思索、考慮(What are you thinking about?)

13. think of 想起、企圖(He told me his name but I can't think of it now.)

七、多餘的介詞:(不必加上介詞的地方就不要隨意加上,括號內的介詞須去掉)

1. She met (up with) the new coach in the hallway.

2. The book fell off (of) the desk.

3. He threw the book out (of) the window.

4. She wouldn't let the cat inside (of) the house.

5. Where did they go (to)?

6. Where is your college (at)?

八、句子裡並列的介詞:

8.1 如並列的介詞相同,可去其一:(括號裡的介詞刪去)

1. You can wear that outfit in summer and (in) winter.

2. The female was both attracted (by)(被吸引) and distracted by(使分心)
the male's dance.

8.2 如並列的介詞不相同,相關的介詞必需列出:

1. The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. (interested
in感興趣 / disgusted by討厭)

2. It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from
every game he played. (contribute to付出/ learn from 從…學習)

3. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman. (fascinated
by被迷住 / enamored of 傾心的)


英文介詞實在是太多了,舉不勝舉。有興趣的可找一本介詞詞典研究一番,也許有朝一
日能成為介詞專家也說不定喔。

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整理和解釋得真好,怎麼不能直接用google+或fb分享,這是有版權的嗎?可否轉貼

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