2012年11月22日 星期四

如何在應用英語時避免性別歧視

. 2012年11月22日 星期四

  近四十年來,儘管非性別歧視語還沒有達到非不可的程度,但它畢竟已進人日常會話和寫作的主流之中。隨便翻開一張英美的報紙,或瞧一下五花八門的宣傳廣 告,就會發現supervisor(工頭,領班)替代了原來的foreman, workman's compensation(工人賠償金)變成了worker's compensation; sales rep, sales associate或seller(推銷員)取代了常用詞salesman等。為此,筆者將有關資料整理如下,供英語學習者參考。請注意,所選用的例句, 除個別註明外,均選自Rosalie Maggio編寫的The Nonselist Word Finder: A Dictionary of Gender-Free Usage (Maggio, 1989)。



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  1.儘量不用通性代詞he,除了明確地指代一個男性人物時,都要設法避免使用之。可以根據語境需要,選用下列替換方式:

  1)採用複數形式
  Sexist: When bathing a baby, never leave him unattended.
  Revised: When bathing babies, never leave them unattended.
  給嬰兒洗澡時,一定不能讓他們無人照料。

  2)用we/us/our改寫原句
  Sexist: From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.
  Revised: From each of us according to our abilities, to each of us according to our needs.
  各盡所能,按需分配。

  3)改用第二人稱、
  Sexist: No man knows his true character until he has run out of gas, purchased something on the installment plan and raised an adolescent.

  Revised: You don't know what your true character is until you have run out of gas, purchased something on the ! installment plan and raised an adolescent.
  只有當汽車大的油用光了,按分規付款方式購物和撫養大一個孩子時,人的本來品性才會顯露出來。

  4)改用被動語態
  Sexist: One who, when he has the choice of two evils, chooses both.
  Revised: One who, when given the choice of two evils, chooses both.
  一個在兩種惡行之中要作出選擇就兩者都選的人。

  5)完全省略代詞
  Sexist: What a person thinks of after he becomes a departee?
  Revised: What a person thinks of after becoming a departee?
  一個人離去後,會作何感想呢?

  6)用冠詞替代
  Sexist: Can a critic give his opinion of an omelet without being asked to make one?
  Revised: Can a critic give an opinion of...?
  評論家議論煎蛋時難道到非要他去自己煎雞蛋嗎?

  7)用someone, one, the one, no one等替代
  Sexist: He who can take advice is sometimes superior to him who can give it.
  Revised: Someone who can take advice is sometimes superior to the one who can give it.
  接受忠告者有時勝過發出忠告者。

  8)使用he and she或his and her,但使用的次數不宜太多。s/he僅可用於備忘錄(memos), 便條(notes), 或者非正式的交談之中。

  9)用名詞或上下文中用過的同義詞替換
  Sexist: To find a friend one must close one eye - to keep him, two.
  Revised: To find a friend, one must close one eye - to keep a friend, two.
  想找朋友;就得睜一隻眼,閉一隻眼;想留住朋友,就得雙眼都閉上。

  2.儘量使用那些包括兩性在內的詞,即無性別之分的詞(gender-free words),

  例如: child, teacher, officer(警官),people, worker, immigrant(移民),voter(投票者,選民), coach(教練),church member(教友), sale rep(推銷員),grand parent(外/祖父或祖母),leader, evening student, employee (僱員),testee(考生,應試者),engineer,customers(顧客), dealer(交易者,商人),clerk(職員,辦事員),civilian(平民),scientist, operator(接線員,辦事員),patriot(愛國者),person, planner(策劃者,計劃者), politician(政客), producer(生產者、製造者), tutor(家庭教師,導師,[美國〕助教),reporter,writer,chief executive(首席行政長官),everybody, expert等.

  3、如非特指男性或女性,儘量用同義詞或近義詞替換含有-girl, -woman, -wife, -man尾碼的詞,例如:

  calendar girl(月份牌上的美女像)-calendar model 掛曆模特
  call girl(應召女郎)--prostitute妓女
  cover girl(雜誌封面女郎)--cover model封面模特
  flag girl(女司旗手)--flag bearer司旗手,執旗員
  flower girl(賣花女)--flower seller賣花人
  housewife(家庭主婦)--house worker(家務工人)
  midwife(接生婆)--birth attendant(助產士)
  showgirl(舞女,歌女)--dancer(伴舞者)
  chairman(主席)--chair, head(主席,頭頭)
  ring man(賭/賽馬者)--bettor; gambler(賭馬者,賭博者)
  seaman(海員,水兵)--sailor; navigator; mariner pilot, captain 水手,航海者,船員,領航員,船長
  spokesman (發言人) -speaker; representative, voice; press agent 發言人,代表,
  right-hand man(得力助手) --right hand; deputy; assistant; helper 得力助手,副手,助理,助手

  4.寫信時,如果不知道收信人的性別,最好不要使用傳統的Dear Sir; Dear Gentleman, Dear Madam. 可以選用下列之一:

  1) Dear friends of the library(親愛的圖書館的朋友們)
  2)Dear Madams and Sirs(親愛的女士們及先生們)
  3) Dear Personnel Officer(親愛的人事處長)
  4)Dear Committee Member(親愛的委員)
  5)Dear Citizen(親愛的公民)
  6)Dear Customer(親愛的顧客)
  7) Dear Councilor(親愛的參議員,或顧問)
  8)Dear Agent(親愛的代辦)
  9)Dear Director(親愛的廠長或局長;主任;)

  5.儘量少引用含有通性詞man; men的引語,如果非引用不可,下列處理辦法可供選擇:

  1)不直接引用,把引語進行釋義
  Sexist: W. Phillips said: "The best use of laws is to teach people to trample bed laws under their feet."
  Revised: W. Phillips suggested that the best use of law is to teach people to trample bad ones under their feet.
  W·菲利普斯說:“行使法律的最好辦法是教導人們把不好的法律踩在腳下。"

  2)使用[sic](原文如此)讓讀者意識到原文中的man使用得不大恰當。例如:
  w. Phillips said: “The best used laws is to teach men[sic] to trample bad ones under their feet.”

  3)對上述引語,也可只引用其中的一部分,例如:
  W. Phillips said the best use of laws was to teach people "to trample bad laws under their feet”。

  我們贊同Rosalie Maggio所講的話:

  “It is also necessary to acknowledge that there can be no solution to the problem of sexism in society on the level of language alone. Using the word secretary inclusively, for example, does not change the fact that only 1.6% of American secretaries are men. Using director instead of directress does not mean a woman will necessarily enjoy the same opportunities today a man might."

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