2016年2月25日 星期四

英語語法倒裝句

. 2016年2月25日 星期四

倒裝是一種語法手段,用於表示一定的句子結構或強調某一句子成分。倒裝句有兩種完全倒裝和部分倒裝。

1 倒裝句之全部倒裝
全部倒裝是只將句子中的謂語動詞全部置於主語之前。此結構通常只用與一般現在時和 一般過去時。常見的結構有
1) here, there, now, then, thus等副詞置於句首, 謂語動詞常用be, come, go, lie, run。
There goes the bell.
Then came the chairman.
Here is your letter.
2) 表示運動方向的副詞或地點狀語置於句首,謂語表示運動的動詞。
Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
Ahead sat an old woman.
注意上述全部倒裝的句型結構的主語必須是名詞,如果主語是人稱代詞則不能完全倒裝。
Here he comes.    Away they went.


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2 倒裝句之部分倒裝
部分倒裝是指將謂語的一部分如助動詞或情態倒裝至主語之前。如果句中的謂語沒有助動詞或情態動詞,則需添加助動詞do, does或did,並將其置於主語之前。

 1) 句首為否定或半否定的詞語,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。
Never have I seen such a performance.
Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
當Not until引出主從復合句,主句倒裝,從句不倒裝。

注意 如否定詞不在句首不倒裝。
I have never seen such a performance.
The mother didnt leave the room until the child fell asleep.

典型例題  

1) Why cant I smoke here?
At no time___ in the meeting-room
A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted
C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit
答案A. 這是一個倒裝問題。當否定詞語置於句首以表示強調時,其句中的主謂須用倒裝結構。這些否定詞包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本題的正常語序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
A. man did know  B. man know  C. didnt man know  D. did man know
答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我們知道為一倒裝句,答案在C,D 中選一個。
改寫為正常語序為,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 現在將not提前,後面就不能再用否定了,否則意思就變了。

3 以否定詞開頭作部分倒裝
如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than
Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

典型例題
No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began      B. has the game begun
C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun
答案D. 以具有否定意義的副詞放在句首時,一般採用倒裝句(謂語前置)。這類表示否定意義的詞有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

注意只有當Not only… but also連接兩個分句時,才在第一個分句用倒裝結構。如果置於句首的Not only… but also僅連接兩個並列詞語,不可用倒裝結構。
Not only you but also I am fond of music.

4 so, neither, nor作部分倒裝

表示也、也不 的句子要部分倒裝。    
Tom can speak French. So can Jack.
If you wont go, neither will I.

典型例題
---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?
---I dont know, _____.
A. nor dont I care  B. nor do I care  C. I dont care neither  D. I dont care also
答案B. nor為增補意思也不關心,因此句子應倒裝。 A錯在用 dont 再次否定, C neither 用法不對且缺乏連詞。 D缺乏連詞。

  注意 當so引出的句子用以對上文內容加以證實或肯定時,不可用倒裝結構。意為的確如此。
Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.
---Its raining hard.   ---So it is.

5 only在句首要倒裝的情況
Only in this way, can you learn English well.
Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.
如果句子為主從復合句,則主句倒裝,從句不倒裝
Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

6 as, though 引導的倒裝句
as / though引導的讓步從句必須將表語或狀語提前 (形容詞, 副詞, 分詞, 實義動詞提前)。

注意
1) 句首名詞不能帶任何冠詞。
2) 句首是實義動詞, 其他助動詞放在主語後。如果實義動詞有賓語和狀語,  隨實義動詞一起放在主語之前。
Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

注意
讓步狀語從句中,有though,although時,後面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可連用。

7 其他部分倒裝
1)  so… that 句型中的so 位於句首時,需倒裝。
So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中
May you all be happy.

3) 在虛擬語氣條件句中從句謂語動詞有were, had, should等詞,可將if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主語之前,採取部分倒裝。
Were I you, I would try it again.

典型例題
1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is  
A. man did know  B. man knew  C. didnt man know  D. did man know
答案為D. 否定詞Not在句首,要求用部分倒裝的句子結構。

2) Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. 
A. didnt I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didnt realize D. I realize
答案為B。

3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?
I dont know, ___.
A. nor dont I care  B. nor do I care 
C. I dont care neither D. I dont care also
解析答案為B. 句中的nor引出部分倒裝結構,表示也不。由 so, neither, nor引導的倒裝句,表示前一情況的重複出現。其中, so用於肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。

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